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Information About Mushrooms & Health

by Fungi Perfecti

Information about mushrooms & health

Turkey Tail Mushroom
Wild fruiting of Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor, aka Turkey Tail, Kawaratake or Yun-Zhi

Articles on Mushrooms and Health by Paul Stamets

Visit our Mushroom Information Center for all of Paul Stamets' online articles.

"The Ancient Noble Polypore ( Bridgeoporusnobilissimus): A Mushroom of Many Mysteries", Available for download for a fee from the Web site of The International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

"Notes on Nutritional Properties of Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms", Available for download for a fee from the Web site of The International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

Frequently Asked Questions About Medicinal Mushrooms

1. Who recommends medicinal mushrooms?

Robert C. Atkins, MD

Robert Barnett, Author & Nutritionist in Tonics, Harper Collins, New York

Harriet Beinfeld coauthor of Between Heaven and Earth: A Guide to Chinese Medicine, Ballatine Books, New York

John Boik in Cancer & Natural Medicine: A Textbook of Basic Science and Clinical Research, Oregon Medical Press, Princeton, Minnesota

Morton Broffman, Ph.D. in Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients

Etienne Callebout, MD in An Alternative Medicine Definitive Guide to Cancer, Future Medicine Publishing, Inc., Tiburon, California

Goro Chihara, Ph.D. Teikyo University, Nogawa, Japan

W. Lee Cowden, MD Conservative Medical Institute, Richardson, Texas

Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D. Chinese Herbal Therapies for Immune Disorders, Eastwind Books, San Francisco, California

W. John Diamond, MD Medical Director, Triad Medical Center, Reno, Nevada

Patrick Donovan, ND University Health Clinic, Seattle, Washington

James Duke, Ph.D. Economic & Medical Botanist (ret.), USDA

Daniel Gagnon, Medical Herbalist President of Herbs, Etc., Santa Fe, New Mexico

M. Ghoneum, Ph.D. Drew University of Medicine and Science

Christopher Hobbs, Herbalist in Medicinal Mushrooms, Botanica Press, Santa Cruz, California

Tetsuro Ikekawa, Ph.D. National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan

Jan Lelley, Ph.D. author of Die Heilkraft de Pilze: Gesund durch Mykotherapie

Takashi Mizuno, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Shizuoka University, Japan

Michael Murray, ND & Joseph Pizzorno, ND in The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicines, MacDonald & Co., Ltd., London

Hiroaki Nanba, Ph.D. Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Japan

Robert C. Rountree, MD Helios Health Center, Boulder, Colorado

Jesse Stoff, MD Solstice Clinical Associates, Tucson, Arizona

Jack Taylor, DC Dr. Taylor's Wellness Center, Rolling Meadows, Illinois

Ron Teeguarden,Herbalist in Chinese Tonic Herbs, Japan Publications, Tokyo

Leslie Tierra, Herbalist in The Herbs of Life, Crossing Press, Freedom, California

Michael Tierra, Herbalist in The Way of Herbs, Simon & Schuster, New York

Susan Weed in Breast Cancer, Breast Health, Ashtree Press, Woodstock, New York

Andrew Weil, MD in Spontaneous Healing 8 Weeks to Optimum Health Self Healing Newsletter

Terry Willard, Ph.D. Director, Wild Rose College, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

2. Why alcohol extracts?
Most of the active polysaccharides of mushrooms are soluble in water. When alcohol is added and becomes greater than 40+%, the water-soluble polysaccharides precipitate. Some of the active polysaccharides and their haptens are soluble in alcohol, but insoluble in water, as in the case of Agaricus brasiliensis (Kawagishi et al. 1988). Hence, mushroom products containing both the water and alcohol extracts possess active constituents which remain in solution, giving you the best of both worlds.

3. Why is it important that mushrooms be grown organically?
Mushrooms are great sources of medicines but they can also concentrate heavy metals, especially if their culture is proximate to an industrialized area (Wu et al., 1996; Byrne, 1995; Stijve, 1977, 1984, 1990, 1991, 1992; Kawamura et al., 1991; Muramatsu et al. 1991). Pollutants from air and water can be taken up from the soil and passed directly into the mycelial network. Our mushrooms are grown at our certified organic farm situated at the base of the pristine Olympic Peninsula. Because of our location, abundance of clean air and water, our attention to environmentally sound practices, and personal concern for the integrity of each mushroom product, customers can be confident they are getting the highest quality. We are increasingly selling to Asian markets because of concerns for environmental contamination from pollution. A simple question to ask your supplier: where are their mushrooms grown?

4. What is Maitake "D-fraction"?
Maitake D-fraction is a phrase coined to describe a derivative of a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide (m.w. approx. 1,000,000) that is acid-insoluble, alkali-soluble, and hot-water extractable. The fraction is composed of 1,6 beta-glucans carrying 1,3 branches. All fruitbodies of Maitake contain this fraction.

5. Why not produce a highly purified extract of, for instance, Maitake to isolate the D-fraction from Maitake?
There are several studies suggesting the high-molecular-weight polysaccharide family has greater stimulatory effects than any one of its isolated constituents. Adachi et al (1990) found that there was greater immunological benefit from a heat-treated 'mother' polysaccharide (800,000+ m.w.) than from the isolated, derivative polysaccharides of lower molecular weights of 250,000, 21,000, and 6400. Mizuno (1995, pp. 32-33) and Broffman (1997) also underscored the importance of constituents other than (1-3)-ß-D-glucans, and suggested that other components within the mushrooms helped increase activity. The following model is suggested: the human immune system is stimulated by the decomposition of coarse polysaccharides into synergistic subcomponents, thus enhancing immunological responses. In essence, this effect may be summarized by the adage that "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts." Hence, a crude extract is, in my opinion, better than any one isolated, purified constituent.

Medicinal Mushrooms Reading List

Following is a selection of research papers, symposium transcripts, magazine articles and books on the beneficial properties of medicinal mushrooms. We would be grateful to anyone making copies of this compilation would give us credit. This page will be periodically updated as we become aware of more clinical studies involving mushrooms. If you are aware of other studies, please let us know. Thanks, and enjoy!

Recent, Current & Planned Clinical Studies Using Mushrooms & Mushroom Derivatives for the Treatment of Diseases

Dr. Stefan Glueck, MD, Ph.D., Medical Oncologist
The Ontario Cancer Treatment & Research Foundation
Ontario, Canada
Comments: Shiitake, Lentinula edodes & Cancer therapies. Studies on-going.

Dr. M. Ghoneum
Drew University of Medicine & Science
Los Angeles, CA
Comments: Shiitake, Lentinula edodes and other unnamed mushrooms ('basidiomycetous fungi') used in a clinical study of 11 cancer patients. Study completed. Ghoneum et al. 1995. "Immunomodulatory and anticancer effects of active hemicellulose compound (AHCC)" International Journal of Immunotherapy XI (1) 23-28

Dr. Harry Preuss
Georgetown University
Washington DC
Comments: A factor in Maitake mushrooms, Grifola frondosa, reportedly has anti-diabetic properties and helps the body control blood glucose levels by reducing insulin resistance and enhancing insulin sensitivity. Initial studies show that Maitake fractions are free from the side effects associated with conventional drug treatments.

Selected Supporting Research Papers

Adachi, Y., M. Okazaki, N. Ohno, and T. Yadomae, 1994. "Enhancement of cytokine production by macrophages stimulated with (1—3)-beta-D-glucan, grifolan (GRN), isolated from Grifola frondosa. Biol. Phar. Bull. Dec; 17(12)1554-60.

Adachi, K. et al., 1987. "Potentiation of host-mediated antitumor activity in mice by B-glucan obtained from Grifola frondosa (Maitake)" Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 35:262-270.

Adachi, et al. 1988. "Blood pressure lowering activity present in the fruitbody of Grifola frondosa (Maitake). "Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 3: 1000-1006.

Adachi, Y., N. Ohno, M. Ohsawa, S. Oikawa, T. Yadomae, 1990. "Change of biological activities of (1—3) beta-D-glucan from Grifola frondosa upon molecular weight reduction by heat treatment. "Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. Feb; 38:(2):477-481.

Andreacchi, A. 1995. "Characterization of AA 567, a coronary vasodilator and ca-channel antagonist produced by a basidiomycete species YL 8006." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Rochester, Dept. of Chemical Engineering.

Aoki, T. et al., 1987. "Low natural killer syndrome: Clinical and immunologic features" Nat. Immun. Cell. Growth Regul. 6: 116-28.

Bau, Z.D., Z.G. Wu, and F. Zheng, 1994. "Amelioration of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity by Cordyceps sinensis in old patients" Chung-Kuo-Chung-Hsi-I-Chieh-Ho-Tsa-Chih, May; 14(5): 271-3, 259.

Broffman, M. 1997. "Mushrooms as Immune Umbrella for the 21st Century". Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, October.

Byrne, A., Z. Slejkovec, T. Stijve, L. Fay, W. Gossler, J. Gailers and K.J. Irgolics, 1996. "Arsenobetaine and other arsenic species in mushrooms" Applied Organometallic Chemistry, v. 9, 309-313.

Chang, Jung-lieh, 1983. "Experimental study of antitumor effect of an extract derived from Zhu-Ling (Polyporus umbellatus)" Institute of Material Medica, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peking, China.

Chang, H.M. & P.P. But 1986. Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Materia Medica. Vol.1. Singapore, World Scientific.

Chang, H.M. & P.P. But 1987. Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Materia Medica. Vol.1I. Singapore, World Scientific.

Chen, K. and W. Zhang, 1987. "Advances in anti-aging herbal medicines in China" Abstracts of Chinese Medicines 1: 309-330.

Chen, A. & P. Miles, 1996. "Biomedical research and the application of mushroom nutraceuticals from Ganoderma lucidum" in Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, Penn State University, University Park, Pa.

Chen, W.C., D.M. Hau, C.C. Wang, I.H. Lin, and S.S. Lee., 1995 "Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Krestin on subset T-cell in spleen of gamma-irradiated mice." American Journal of Chinese Medicine. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 23(3-4): 289-98.

Chihara, G. et al., 1969. Inhibition of mouse sarcoma 180 by polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. Nature 222: 637-688.

Chihara, G., 1987. "Antitumor and metastasis-inhibitory activities of lentinan as an immunomodulator: an overview". Cancer Det. Prev. Suppl. 1: 423-443.

Collins, R.A., and T.B. Ng, 1997. "Polysaccharopeptide from Coriolus versicolor has potential for use against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection" Life Sciences 60(25): PL383-7.

Dong, Y., M.M. Yang and C.Y. Kwan, 1997. "In vitro inhibition of proliferation of HL-60 cells by tetrandrine and Coriolus versicolor peptide derived from Chinese medicinal herbs" Life Sciences 60*8): PL135-40.

Ebina, T. and K. Murata, 1994. "Antitumor effect of intratumoral administration of a Coriolus preparation, PSK: inhibition of tumor invasion in vitro." Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 21: 2241-3.

Furusawa, E., S.C. Chou, S. Furusawa, et al. 1992. "Antitumor activity of Ganoderma lucidum, an edible mushroom, on intraperitoneally implanted Lewis lung carcinoma in synergenic mice. Phytotherapy Research 6: 300-304.

Gau, J.P., C.K. Lin, S.S. Lee, and S.R. Lang, 1990. "The lack of antiplatelet effect of crude extracts from Ganoderma lucidum on HIV-positive hemophiliacs" American Journal of Chinese Medicine 18(3-4): 175-9.

Ghoneum, M., M. Wimbley, F. Salem, A. Mcklain, N. Attallan, G. Gill., 1995. "Immunomodulatory and anticancer effects of active hemicellulose compound (AHCC)." Int. Journal of Immunotherapy XI (1): 23-28.

Ghoneum, M., 1994. "NK-Immunomodulation by active hemicellulose compound (AHCC) in 17 cancer patients." Abstract of 2nd Meeting Society of Natural Immunity, Taormina, Italy, May 25-28.

Gunde-Cimerman, N.G. and A. Cimerman, 1995. "Pleurotus fruiting bodies contain the inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase-Lovastatin®." Experimental Mycology 19: 1-6.

Haak-Frendscho, M., K. Kino, T. Sone et al. 1993. "Ling Zhi-8: a novel T cell mitogen induces cytokine production and upregulation of ICAM-1 expression. Cell Immunol: 150(1): 101-13.

Hang, KC., 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

Haranaka, K. N. Satomi, A. Sakurai, R. Haranaka, N. Okada, and M. Kobayishi, 1985. "Antitumor activities and tumor necrosis factor producibility of traditional Chinese medicines and crude drugs." Cancer Immunology & Immunotherapy 20(1): 1-5.

Hattori, M., 1997. "Inhibitory effects of components from Ganoderma lucidum on the growth of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the Protease Activity" in Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Ganoderma lucidum in Japan, Nov. 17-18th, 128-135. Tokyo.

Hibino, Y., Y. Konishi, J.. Koike, T. Tabata, Y. Ohashi, and N. Sugano, 1994. "Productions of interferon-gamma and nitrite are induced in mouse splenic cells by a heteroglycan-protein fraction from culture medium of Lentinus edodes mycelia" Immunopharmacology July-Aug 28(1): 77-85.

Hirotani M. & T. Furuya, 1986. "Ganoderic acid derivatives, highly oxygenated lanotane-type triterpenoids, from Ganoderma lucidum." Phytochemistry 25: 1189-1193.

Hu, T., J. Chen, J. Xu, and Q. Yang, 1992. "Effects of polysaccharide-peptide of Coriolus and polysaccharide of Ganoderma on scavenging active oxygen species" Acta. Biochemical et Biophysical Sinica 5:465-470.

Ikekawa, T., N. Uehara, Y. Maeda, M. Nakanishi, F. Fukuoka, 1969. "Twenty years of Studies on Antitumor Activities of Mushrooms". Cancer Research 29, 734-735.

Ito, H. and K. Shimura, 1986. "Studies on the antitumor activity of traditional Chinese medicines. (II). The antitumor mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines." Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 12(11):2149-54.

Ito, H., K. Shimura, H. Itoh, M. Kawade, 1997. "Antitumor effects of a new polysaccharide-protein complex (ATOM) prepared from Agaricus blazei (Iwade strain 101) "Himematsutake" and its mechanisms in tumor-bearing mice" Anticancer Research Jan-Feb 17(1A): 277-84.

Itoh, H., H. Ito, H. Amano, and H. Noda, 1994. "Inhibitory action of a (1—>6)beta-D-glucan-protein complex (FIII-2-b) isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill ("Himematsutake") on Meth A fibrosarcoma-bearing mice and its antitumor mechanism" Japanese Journal of Pharmacology Oct; 662): 265-71.

Jong, S.C., J.M. Birmingham and S.H. Pai, 1991. "Immuno-modulatory substances of fungal origin. "Journal of Immunol. Immunopharamacol. Vol. XI, N. 3.

Jong, S.C. and J.M. Birmingham, 1992. "Medicinal effects of the mushroom Ganoderma. "Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 37: 101-134.

Kabir, Y.M. & S. Kimura, 1987. Effect of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and Maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms on blood pressure and plasma lipids of spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 33: 341-346.

Kahlos, K. et al., 1996. "Preliminary tests of antiviral activity of two Inonotus obliquus strains". Fitopterapia 6 (4) 344-7.

Kawagishi, H., A. Nomura, T. Yumen, T. Mizuno, T. Hagwara and T. Nakamura, 1988. "Isolation and properties of a lectin from the fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei" Carbohydrate Research Nov 15: 183(1): 150-4.

Kawagishi, H., R. Inagaki, T. Kanao, T. Mizuno, K. Shimura, H. Ito, T. Hagiwara, and T. Nakamura, 1989. "Fractionation and antitumor activity of the water insoluble residue of Agaricus blazei fruiting bodies" Carbohydrate Research Mar. 15; 186(2): 267-73.

Kawagishi, H., R. Katsumi, T. Sazawa, T. Mizuno, T. Hagiwara, and T. Nakamura, 1988. Phytochemistry 27, 2777.

Kawagishi et al., 1991. "Hericenones C, D and E, Stimulators of nerve growth factor (NGF)-synthesis from the mushroom Hericium erinaceum." Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 32, no. 35, 4561-4564.

Kawagishi et al., 1994. "Erinacines A, B, C, strong stimulators of nerve growth factor synthesis, from the mycelia of Hericium erinaceum." Tetrahedron Letters 35 (10): 1569-1572.

Kawamura, Y., S. Uchiyma, Y. Saito, 1991. "Survey of radiocesium in domestic mushrooms on the market" Eisei-Shikenjo-Hokoku (109): 98-9.

Kim, B.K., H.W. Kim and E.C. Choi, 1994. "Anti-HIV effects of Ganoderma lucidum." In Ganoderma: Systematics, Phytopathology & Pharmacology: Proceedings of Contributed Symposium 59 A,B. 5th International Mycological Congress. Vancouver.

Kim, B.K., R.S. Kim, & H.W. Kim1997. "Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on human leukocytes" in Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Ganoderma lucidum in Japan, Nov. 17-18th, 87-89, Tokyo.

Ko, J.L., C.I. Hsu, R.H. Lin, C.L. Kao, and J.Y. Lin, 1995. "A new fungal immunomodulatory protein, FIP-fve isolated from the edible mushroom, Flammulina velutipes and its complete amino acid sequence." European Journal of Biochemistry Mar 1; 228(2)244-9.

Kohda, H., W. Tokumoto, K Sakamoto et al., 1985. "The biologically active constituents of Ganoderma lucidum" Chem. Pharm. Bull. 33(4): 1367-74.

Kubo, K., H. Aoki, & H. Nanba, 1994. "Anti-diabetic activity present in the fruit body Grifola frondosa (Maitake)." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 17, 8: 1106-1110.

Kuo, Y.C., C.Y. Lin, W.J. Tsai, and C.L. Wu, C.F. Chen & M.S. Shiao, 1994. "Growth inhibitors against tumor cells in Cordyceps sinensis other than cordycepin and polysaccharides" Cancer-Investigation. 12(6): 611-5.

Kurashige, S., Y. Akuzawa, and F. Endo, 1997. "Effects of Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa and Pleurotus ostreatus administration on cancer outbreak, and activities of macrophages and lymphocytes in mice treated with a carcinogen, N-butyl-N-butanolnitrosoamine" Journal of Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology May; 1902): 175-183.

Lelley, J., 1997. Die Heilkraft der Pilze: Gesund durch Mykotherapie Der Econ Verlag ist ein Unternehmen, Dusseldorf und Munchen.

Leung, M.Y., K.P. Fung, and Y.M. Choy, 1997. "The isolation of an immunomodulatory and anti-tumor polysaccharide preparation from Flammulina velutipes." Immunopharmacology Jan; 35(3): 255-63.

Li, Q., S. Wang, & C. Sun, 1992. "Clinical study of rapid bladder filling agent" Chung-Kuo-Chung-Hsi-I-Chieh-Ho-Tsa-Chih Sept. (12) 9: 533-4, 517.

Lieu, C.W., S.S. Lee, and S.Y. Wang, 1992. "The effect of Ganoderma lucidum on induction of differentiation in leukemic U937 cells." Anticancer Research Jul-Aug: 12(4): 1211-5.

Lin, Z.-B, 1993. "Advances in the pharmacology of Tremella polysaccharides. From Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products." S.T. Chang et al., 293-298. The Chinese University Press.

Lin, Y. & G. Wu, 1988. "Protective effect of Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharide on toxic hepatitis in mice." 9:345-348, from Abstracts of Chinese Medicines 1: 444.

Lin, Y., et al., 1987. "A double-blind treatment of 72 cases of chronic hepatitis with Lentinan injection." New Drugs and Clinical Remedies 6:362-363, from Abstracts of Chinese Medicines 2: 325.

Lin, Y., 1989. "Pharmacological and gastronomic effects of fungi and its applications." Chemical Times, no. 1, 12-21.

Lin, Y., 1993. "Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and liver-protective effects of Anoectochilus formosanus, Ganoderma lucidum and Gynostermma pentaphyllum in rats." American. Journal of Chinese Medicine 21: 59-69.

Liu, C., S. Lu, MR Li, 1992a. "Effects of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) on in vitro natural killer cells." Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Cheih Ho Tsa Chih 12(5): 267-9, 259.

Maitake Products, Inc., Press Release of Feb. 1, 1998, Parasmus, New Jersey.

Majstrik, V. and A. Lepsova, 1992. "Applicability of fungi to the monitoring of environmental pollution by heavy metals". In Plants as Biomonitors, Markert, B. (ed.), VCH, Weinheim, 365-378.

Maruyama, H., K. Yamazaki, S. Murofushi, et al., 1989. "Antitumor activity of Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito and Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. J. Pharmacobiodyn 1989; 12 (2): 118-23.

Miyasaki, T., 1983. "Antitumor activity of fungal crude drugs." Journal of Traditional Sino-Japanese Medicine 4(1), 61-65.

Mizuno, T., 1988. "Development and utilization of bioactive substances from medicinal and edible mushroom fungi II. Ganoderma lucidum." Chemical Times 1989 (3) 50-60.

Mizuno, T, 1989. "Yamabushitake, Hericium erinaceum: Bioactive Substances and Medicinal Utilization" Food Reviews International 11(1), 173-178.

Mizuno, T, 1989. "Pharmacological and gastronomic effects of fungi and its applications." Chemical Times 1: 12-21.

Mizuno, T, ed., 1995. "Mushrooms: The versatile fungus- food and medicinal properties" in Food Reviews International, vol. 11, no.1. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

Mizuno, T, 1996. A medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, Il-Yang Pharm. Co., Seoul, Korea

Mizuno, T, H. Ito, K. Shimura, T. Hagiwara & T. Nakamura, 1989. "Preparation method of antitumor neutral polysaccharides from Himematsutake" Japan Kokai Tokyo Koho (A), Sho64-67195, March 13, 565-568.

Mizuno, T, H. Ito, K. Shimura, T. Hagiwara & T. Nakamura, 1989. "Preparation method of antitumor acidic glycans from Himematsutake" Japan Kokai Tokyo Koho (A), Sho64-67194, March 13, 561-564.

Mizuno, T, Hagiwara, T., Nakamura, T., Ito, H. Shimura, K. Sumiya, T., Asakura, A. 1990. "Antitumor activity and some properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from 'Himematsutake,' the fruiting body of Agaricus blazei Murrill" Agricultural & Biological Chemistry 54. Tokyo. 2889-2896.

Mizuno, T, Hagiwara, T., Nakamura, T., Ito, H. Shimura, K. Sumiya, T., Asakura, A. 1990. "Antitumor activity and some properties of water-insoluble hetero-glycans from 'Himematsutake,' the fruiting body of Agaricus blazei Murrill" Agricultural & Biological Chemistry 54. Tokyo. 2897-2905.

Mizuno, T, T. Waa, H. Ito, C. Suzuki, N. Ukai, 1992. "Antitumor-active polysaccharides isolated from the fruitbody of Hericium erinaceum, an edible and medicinal mushroom called Yamabushitake or houtou" Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. Feb; 56(2): 347-8.

Mizuno, T, H. Saito, T. Nishitoba, & H. Kawagishi, 1995. "Antitumor active substances from mushrooms." Food Reviews International 111: 23-61. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Mizuno, T & C. Zhuang, 1995. "Maitake, Grifola frondosa, pharmacological effects" Food Reviews International 111: 135-149. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Mori, H.1987. "Effect of immunostimulants and antitumor agents on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production." Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 9: 881-.

Morigawa, A., K. Kitabatake, Y. Fujimoto, & N. Ikekawa, 1986. "Angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibiting triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum" Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 34(7): 3025-3028.

Morinaga, H., K. Tazawa, H. Tagoh, A. Muraguchi, and M. Fujimaka, 1994. "An in vivo study of hepatic and splenic interleukin-1 beta mRNA expression following oral PSK or LEM administration" Japanese Journal of Cancer Research Dec. 85(12): 1298-1303.

Muramatsu, Y., S. Yoshida, and M. Sumiya, 1991. "Concentrations of radiocesium and potassium in basidiomycetes collected in Japan" Science of the Total Environment June 105: 29-39.

Murasugi, A., S. Tanaka, N. Komiyama, N. Iwata, K. Kino, H. Tsunoo, and S. Sakuma, 1991. "Molecular cloning of a cDNA and a gene encoding an immunomodulatory protein, Ling Zhi-8, from a fungus, Ganoderma lucidum" Journal of Biological Chemistry Feb 5; 266(4): 2486-93.

Naeshiro, H. 1992. "Skin lightening compositions containing Ganoderma extract" Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 04 09, 315 (92 09, 315).

Nakahara, W., R. Tokuzen, F. Fukuoka, & R.L. Whistle. Nature 216: 374-375.

Nanba, H. 1987. "The chemical structure of an antitumor polysaccharide in fruitbodies of Grifola frondosa (Maitake)." Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 35: 1162-8

Nanba, H., 1992. "Immunostimulant activity in-vivo and anti-HIV activity in-vitro of 3 branched ß-1-6 glucans extracted from Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa)." From the published abstracts of the Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on AIDS and the III STD World Congress.

Nanba, H., 1993. "Antitumor activity of orally administered D-fraction from Maitake Mushroom." J. Naturopathic Med. 41: 10-15.

Nanba, H., 1995. "Activity of Maitake D-Fraction to Inhibit Carcinogenesis and Metastasis." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 768: 243-245.

Nanba, H., 1997. "Maitake D-fraction: Healing and Preventative Potential for Cancer." Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine vol. 12: 43-49.

Naoki et al., 1994. "Pharmacological studies on Cordyceps sinensis from China." Abstracts from the Fifth Mycological Congress. Vancouver, BC, August 14-21.

Ng, T.B., J.M. Ling, Z.T. Wang, J.N. Cai, and G.J. Xu, 1996. "Examination of courmarins, flavonoids and polysaccharopeptides for antibacterial activity" General Pharmacology Oct; 27(7): 1237-40.

Nishitoba, T., H. Saot, S. Shirasu, & S. Sakamura, 1987. "Novel triterpenoids from the mycelial mat at the previous stage of fruiting of Ganoderma lucidum." Agricultural & Biological Chemistry 51(2): 619-622.

Oguchi, Y. 1987. "Effect of PSK on cytotoxicity against sarcoma 180 in tumor-bearing mice." Anticancer Research. Pt. B 7: 681-4.

Ohno, N., I. Suzuki, S. Okawa, K. Sato, T. Miyazaki, and T. Yadomae, 1984. "Antitumor activity and structural characterization of glucans extracted from cultured fruitbodies of Grifola frondosa." Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin Mar; 32(3): 1142-51.

Ohno, N., K. Lino, T. Takeyama, I. Suzuki, K. Sato, S. Oikawa, T. Miyazaki, & T. Yadomae, 1985. "Structural characterization and antitumor activity of the extracts from matted mycelium of cultured Grifola frondosa." Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 33 (8)3395-3401.

Ohno, N., N., N. Asada, Y. Adachi, and T. Yadomae, 1995. "Enhancement of LPS triggered TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) production by 1—>3)-beta-D-glucans in mice." Biol. Pharm. Bull., Jan; 18(1)126-33.

Okazaki, M., Y. Adachi, N. Ohno, T. Yadomae, 1995. "Structure-activity relationship of (1—3)-beta-D-glucans in the induction of cytokine production from macrophages, in vitro." Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin Oct. 18(10): 1320-7.

Okamoto, K., et al. 1993. "Antimicrobial chlorinated orcinol derivatives from mycelium of Hericium erinaceus." Phytochemistry, vol. 34, no. 5, 1445-1446.

Ohsawa, T., M. Yukawa, C. Takao, M. Murayama, H. Bando, 1992. "Studies on the constituents of the fruit body Polyporus umbellatus and their cytotoxic activity" Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin Tokyo. Jan 40(1): 143-147.

Oka et al., 1992. "Immunological analysis and clinical effects of intraabdominal and intrapleural injection of lentinan for malignant ascites and pleural effusion." Biotherapy 5: 107-112.

Osaki, Y., T. Kato, K. Yamamto, J. Okubo, T. Miyazaki, 1994. "Antimutagenic and bactericidal substances in the fruit body of a Basidiomycete Agaricus blazei" Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan May; 114(5): 342-50.

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Noteworthy Popular Articles

Beinfield, H., 1997. "Medicinal mushrooms: help yourself to a serving of health." Nature's Impact, December.

Chilton, J. 1993. "What are the health benefits of mushrooms?" Let's Live, Dec., pp. 24-29.

Dharmananda, S., 1988. "Medicinal mushrooms." Bestways Magazine, July, pp. 54-58.

Hobbs, C., 1997. "Mushroom medicine" Vegetarian Times, Nov. pp. 96-98.

Hobbs, C., 1997. "Medicine mushrooms" Herbs for Health, pp. 52-53. Jan/Feb.

Jones, K., 1997. "An ancient Chinese secret promotes longevity and endurance." Healthy & Natural Journal, vol. 3, issue 3, pp. 90-93.

Jones, K., 1997. "Shiitake: medicine in a mushroom" Herbs for Health, pp. 48-50, 54. Jan/Feb.

Smith, C. 1994. "Gold medal herbs". Natural Health May/June, pp. 85-87

Stanislaus, C., 1996. "Ling Zhi - medicine of kings." New Editions Health World, pp. 38-41.

Steinman, D., 1995. "Potent protectors." Natural Health, Nov-Dec. pp. 92-95; 134-135.

Weil, A. 1993. "Boost immunity with mushrooms." Natural Health, May-June, pp. 12-16.

Weil, A., 1997. "Miraculous mushrooms." Dr. Andrew Weil's Self Healing Newsletter, May, 1997.

Wiley, C. 1991. "The medicinal side of mushrooms." Vegetarian Times, March 1991.

Books on the Medicinal Properties of Mushrooms

Hobbs, C., 1995. Medicinal Mushrooms: an Exploration of Tradition, Healing and Cultures. Interweave Press.

Jones, K., 1997. Cordyceps: Tonic Food of Ancient China. Sylvan Press.

Jones, K., 1995. Shiitake: The Healing Mushroom. Healing Arts Press.

Stamets, P. 1993. Growing Gourmet & Medicinal Mushrooms. Ten Speed Press.

Stamets, P. 1999. MycoMedicinals®: an Informational Treatise on Mushrooms. MycoMedia® Publications.

Willard, T., 1995. Reishi Mushroom: Herb of Spiritual Potency and Medical Wonder. Sylvan Press.

Journals and Notable Proceedings on the Medicinal Properties of Mushrooms

"Ganoderma: Systematics, Phytopathology and Pharmacology" ed. by P.K. Buchannan, R.S. Hseu, and J.M. Moncalvo. Proceedings of Contributed Symposia 59,B 5th International Mycological Congress, Vancouver, August 14-21, 1994.

"Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products" ed. by S.T. Chang, J.A. Buswell, and S. Chiu. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, August 23-26, 1993, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

"Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products" ed. by D.J. Royse. Proceedings of the Second International Conference, University Park, Pennsylvania, June 9-12, 1996.

"Mushrooms: The Versatile Fungus-Food and Medicinal Properties" ed. by T. Mizuno in Food Reviews International vol. 11, no. 1., 1995. Marcel Dekker, Monticello, New York.

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